A Dermal ulcer is a sore on the skin followed by the disintegration of the tissue, which leads to complete or portioned loss of the epidermis and even subcutaneous fat. Skin ulcers are most common on the skin of extremities and they often visible as an inflamed tissue with reddened skin.
Skin ulcer is usually caused by prolonged pressure on the tissues, problems with blood circulation and irritation, most because the lack of mobility. People who are elderly, bedridden or in a wheelchair, neurologically impaired or hospitalized with acute illness, have an increased risk for developing necrosis and ulceration.
On the first two stages of the ulcer, the skin around the affected area may be red, swollen and tender, and the patient may feel pain. The symptoms may also be accompanied by some blisters and loss of outer skin layers.
During the next two stages, the skin may become necrotic, exposing the fat beneath the skin, leading to a deeper loss of the tissue and necrosis of the muscle. In severe cases, the sore can get down through the layers of the skin to the bone and joints.
The treatment for dermal ulcer is usually prescribed to avoid the infection of the tissue, to maintain a moist environment and ease the pain.
The first step in treating a sore is repositioning the patient regularly and placed in correct positions, at least every two hours. Also, special cushions, pads, mattresses and beds can relieve pressure on an existing sore and protect vulnerable skin from future damage.
To heal properly, the dead tissue needs to be removed. This can be accomplished with a number of methods, depending on the severity of the wound. After this step it's essential to keep wounds clean to prevent infection. For pain management there are antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants. It is also recommended a healthy diet and physical exercises. ( www.mayoclinic.com)